徒手對刀入門 II Against Knife Attack Basics II
(圖片來源Picture source: Mark Lennihan, AP)
(圖片來源Picture source: Mark Lennihan, AP)
徒手對刀入門 II Against Knife Attack Basics II
我會是第一個承認我不是什麼短刀/奪刀的專家。我充其量只是一個對短刀/奪刀很感興趣的研究者。911之後我就去學以短刀短棍聞名於世的菲律賓武術Kali。似乎大多數Kali系統開始先學用棍，然後學用刀。但是，我學過的系統，我們從第一天開始就學用短刀。後來，我也去上在過去的幾年國外很流行以街頭實戰著名的以色列軍隊武術Krav Maga的教練特訓班; 課程包括奪刀奪槍。此外，通過雜誌或影片來了解其他不同的武術他們的徒手對刀攻擊處理方式。我還收集和分析超過230件在台灣用刀暴力犯罪案件。即便如此，如果你問我什麼是對付持刀歹徒的最佳方法，我的忠告很簡單：「快跑！」或「跑快點！」也許有些人可能會認為他們已經學了多年的武術或上過奪刀課，所以當遇上持刀攻擊時他們或許認為應付得來。我的回應是根據我的統計，在台灣遇上刀攻擊的死亡率幾乎是每兩人就會有一人不幸死亡 (死亡率是47%)！也聽過所謂的短刀/奪刀專家遭遇歹徒用刀攻擊時受傷的故事。我知道有時也有情況是人們遇上持刀攻擊可能不能夠馬上逃離現場，例如在密閉空間內。如果你有興趣，對同一主題我幾年前的一篇文章有一些建議可供參考。以下是關於這個主題的新觀點。有些想法可能不是很齊全，可僅把它當作參考或拋磚引玉。我已經劃分這個主題為四個部分 - 「看、 跑、 拿、 奪」。
「看」：談到面對用刀的暴力犯罪，「預防絕對勝過治療」。在我第一次上菲律賓武術Kali課，教練叫我像班上其他同學一樣上衣要塞進褲子內。這是要教我們平常要注意可疑的人或事物，因為一些歹徒會把武器插在腰際用露出來的上衣掩蓋住。歹徒常常就愛找無危機意識、看起來容易下手的人為其目標。我們在日常生活需要提高警覺觀察周遭人事物的異狀、防患於未然避免讓自己陷於危險之中以降低成為受害者的機率。這就是為什麼一些國外防身專家總是提醒我們 - 「做一個不好下手/硬的目標!」 (“Be a hard target!”)。
「拿」：我學的Kali系統對防持刀攻擊的態度是 - 「他有刀。我也有刀。」這是一個非常務實地的態度 - 處理遇上有刀的攻擊者最佳途徑是你也有刀或武器。在美國儘管許多人攜帶刀作為一種自衛的工具，但是每個國家的國情況和文化都不同。在美國，每個州甚至都有自己的法律規定可合法隨身攜帶的刀。如果你考慮隨身攜帶刀防身，那麼你最好先查詢並了解當地的法律。如果您選擇隨身攜帶刀、防身噴霧器、甩棍或其他自衛工具，應該找時間練習如何使用它們。另一個關鍵是在自衛情況下必須是能夠在幾秒鐘內找到與準備使用這些防身工具，否則還不如不攜帶。因為當在真實的情況人往往會恐慌害怕，如果平常沒有練習，在這一刻來到時會來不及去想工具放那裡或如何使用它。此外，不打算攜帶任何防身工具的人，那麼你應該想一想日常生活中你隨身攜帶的物品哪些當其必要時可以用作武器，例如手機、雨傘、硬幣、鑰匙..等。最後，最好能形成一個習慣在周圍的環境中能快速挑選出可以用來作為武器的物品。
「奪」：在這階段是當你逃不了及沒有什麼東西可以用來作為武器，所以你不得不光著手對抗持刀的攻擊者。雖然我命名此階段的為「奪」，因為人們熟悉 「奪刀術」這個術語，然而，「奪」只是其中的一環。我不打算在這裡教任何奪刀術，因為這將是不可能的任務。我唯一要說的是並不是所有的武術老師/教練都能夠教你奪刀術。我建議你是做好功課找一個真正合格的教練來教你奪刀術。我今天在這裡談的是1. 訓練方法和2. 正確做法和心態。
1. 訓練方法: 就個人而言，我覺得用一把合適的練習刀來訓練奪刀術是很重要的。在我學的Kali系統我們只用金屬刀作為練習刀以盡可能地模擬真刀。然而，我不建議用真刀來進行訓練，因為它的風險性真的太高了。相反地，一些學校使用捲起來的報紙或空的保特瓶當作刀練習奪刀術; 希望他們僅是偶爾使用這些替代品。我的朋友是國外的柔術教練，有一次他當昇黑帶考試的考官測試學員的奪刀術。通常這些學員使用橡膠刀練習奪刀術。所以我的朋友首先用橡膠刀考這些黑帶候選人的奪刀術，而他們測試過程中的表現也都良好。後來，我的朋友取出未開鋒的金屬刀。這些黑帶候選人看到金屬刀都非常驚訝。這些人很明顯地變得過於緊張和猶豫，他們剛剛做得很好的的奪刀術現在幾乎做不出來了。金屬刀和橡皮刀給人們心理上的壓力是很顯著不同的;上述的替代品更是無從比較起。除了金屬刀，還有一些創新的產品對於訓練奪刀非常有幫助;如果學員在訓練奪刀中被刀鋒碰到有的練習刀會留下紅色印記而有的刀發出輕微的電流讓學員知道如果這是真實情況他們已經受傷了。因為試圖奪刀時人很可能會受傷，所以在Krav Maga的訓練在某些階段建議使用假血像番茄醬。可以將假血灑在你的手上和手臂上、以及你的訓練夥伴的訓練刀上，看看你是否仍然可以使出所練的奪刀術。在Krav Maga有時會在一個昏暗的燈光下進行訓練摹擬照明不太好的暗巷。(上個月的社會新聞標題 -「捷運忠孝復興站暗巷驚傳砍人！2男1女受傷送醫」, 2015年09月24日)或者，在訓練時一邊播放街道上的吵雜聲如人車聲和警笛聲。如同這些摹擬不同情境的主意都應考慮加到奪刀術訓練中。
2. 正確做法和心態: 即使在這個階段，你的最終目的不是制服攻擊者或歹徒，而仍是要找機會脫身或掙取時間等人來幫助。獨自徒手制服攻擊者將是最後的手段。此外有一點要記住幾乎所有的專家都同意在這個階段你一定會被刀所傷。我同意這一點，因為我的數據顯示98％的人全都受刀傷。當徒手面對持刀歹徒雖然傷害是不可避免，關鍵是要避免在致命部位被砍或被刺到，如主要動脈或內臟器官。是的，根據我的研究的確有些人是很不幸地被一刀斃命。但如果你能避免被傷到要害部位，即使你有多處刀傷你的生存機會將大大地增加。最後，在此時你不能有受害人的心態坐以待斃，你必須喚起最大勇氣為求生而奮力一搏。你的心態需要有所轉換，像一些專家喜歡說的：「從獵物變成獵人」。(“From the hunted becomes the hunter.”)
Against Knife Attack Basics II
Just last month, we had reached 14 years anniversary of 911. To me personally, 911 was a date that I would never forget, because I was living right outside of New York City where I could see the World Trade Center from my apartment building across the Hudson River. When I got home in the afternoon that day, I couldn't believe those two skyscrapers disappeared just like that. On that day nearly 3,000 lives were lost, due to a few terrorists brought some box cutters on board two airplanes.
I had always been wanting to learn knife defense, so 911 was the “last draw.” Last year, there was an incidence in Taipei Metro; 4 were killed and 24 persons were wounded by a guy with knives. This incidence prompted many people want to learn about knife defense and many instructors provided classes for the mass to meet the demand. If I remember correctly, 911 also prompted many people to learn more about knife defense. The interest on this subject was so high, so much so I think it created a backlash. There are people who say knife defense is a subject that very few people really know, yet so many people are teaching it. Some even bluntly criticize many knife defense classes are teaching their students “suicide” techniques. The thing is even people who have learned martial art cannot discern the good knife defense from the bad one, let alone ordinary people.
I would be the first one to admit that I am no knife expert. I am merely a student or at best a researcher of knife defense. My first knife background was in Filipino martial arts of Kali. It seems most Kali systems start their students with sticks, then move to knives. But, the system that I learned we were taught to use knives from day one. Then, I also learned Krav Maga way to deal with knife attack. Later on, I have become an avid reader of different styles martial arts on their ways of dealing with knife attacks. I have also collect data on over 230 knife attack cases in Taiwan. My best advice is simply “Run!” when you face a knife attack. I have heard stories about some supposedly knife experts got wounded badly during encounters with assailants with a knife. How do you think an average Joe who has a two-hour class on knife defense would fair in a really knife attack? Worst yet, some might have a false sense of security after taking one or two of these knife defense classes. Based on my collected cases the death rate of knife attack in Taiwan is almost 50%?!! Sometimes there are situation that one might not be able to just run away from the attacker who armed with a knife, for example inside a room. I have some suggestions on my first blog on the same subject, if you are interested. Followings are additional thinking on this subject. Some of the thinking might not be very complete, just treat it as thought stimulators. I have divided this subject into four areas. “Observe, Run, Grab, Disarm”
Observe: In my first Kali class, I was taught to tuck my shirt in my pants like the rest of the class. This is to teach us to look for people who have their shirts untagged, because they might have weapon hidden under the shirt. Like many things, prevention is usually better.“An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure” holds true in self-defense situation, too. Be more observant on what seems to be out of the place or strange. Stay out of dangerous places of the city. People who live in big cities like New York seem to be more alert about his or her surroundings; especially after 911. After the Taipei Metro incidence last year, things might have changed a bit, but I think people in general in Taiwan need to become more alter. Like many self-defense experts like to say: “Be a hard target!”
Run: Everyone knows how to run, but there might be more to it in a knife attack situation. Something that worthwhile to think about on running when facing an attacker with a knife. In my collection of knife attack cases, many of the victims had wounds on their back. I suspect many of them were cut when they turned the body away from their attackers and prepared to run. It's probably an instinct for some people to turn away from knife threat and prepare to run. Although in general, our back side has less vital areas than on the front. In some cases these victims did get to run away from their attackers, however, the cuts on their back were so severe they ended up died on the street. Once we decide to run, in the ideal situation, we want to have a safe distance from the attacker before we take off. One thing that we need to take into account is the distance between us and the attacker, we have to make sure we have a safe distance from the attacker; especially now he has a longer reach with the weapon. Turning away takes time. Can we stall him with some verbal exchanges? Or, throws things at him before we take off? Or, run toward the left side of the attacker making him has to turn to cut us, assuming he is a righty and has the knife on his right hand? Also, if there isn’t any barrier that one can use as a deterrent between him or her and the attacker in an open area, running in a irregular Zigzag pattern probably is a better idea than running straight.
Grab: Our Kali system’s attitude toward knife defense is – “He has a knife. I have knife, too.” It is a very down to earth attitude – the best way to deal with an attacker with a knife is you also have a knife or a weapon. Although many people carry knife as a self-defense tool in the US, but the situation and culture are different country by country. In the US, each state has its own law on legal knives to carry. If you decide to carry knife, then you better check the law in your area first. If you carry a mace or collapsible baton or other self-defense tools, then find time to practice how to use them. Another key is one has to be able find them and ready to deploy in few seconds to be really useful in self-defense situation, otherwise you might as well not carry them at all. This also needs practice, because when in the real situation people tend to be panicking and scared it would be very difficult for one to locate these tools if they don't practice. Also, train to pick out improvised weapons in your surroundings as soon as possible. For people who don't plan to carry any self-defense tools, then you should have a habit of identifying everyday items that you carry that can be used as an improvised weapons. It would be best to form a habit to quickly identify objects in your surroundings that can be used as weapons. So, when the bad guy pulls out his weapon, reach for any improvised weapon that you can get your hands on right away to at least level the playing field just a little bit.
Disarm: This is the stage that when you can't run away and don't have anything that can be used as weapon, so you are forced to fight the attacker with bare hands. Although I name this stage as "disarm”, because people are familiar with the term, however it is just one part of equation. I am not going to teach any disarming techniques here, because it would be impossible to do so. The only thing that I would say is not all martial art teachers/coaches can teach you knife defense. My recommendation to you is do your homework and find a qualified coach to teach you this sort of techniques. What I am going to discuss here are 1. training method and 2. the right approach and mentality at this stage.
1. Training: If you want to practice disarming the knife, I submit to you to at least find the right training knife. I don't agree to use a real knife for training, because the risk factor is just way too high. On the opposite end, I have noticed some schools use curled up newspaper or empty plastic water bottles as training knives. My friend who is a Jujitsu coach once he conducted a test for black belt candidates. Normally, they trained knife defense with a rubber knife. So, my friend used rubber knife first and they candidates did well. Then, my friend used an unsharpened metal knife. It was obvious the candidate became too nervous and hesitant, so they couldn't perform the same techniques as well. The pressure that put on people between a metal knife and rubber knife is significantly different; let alone aforementioned substitutes. There are some innovative products out there for training knife defense; I don’t know they are available in Taiwan or not, some would leave a red mark on the person if he or she get cut during training and some like Taser gun send out electricity shock when one get touched by the blade. At some stage of your knife training, it would be a good idea to introduce some fake blood like tomato sauce since as mentioned you most likely would be injured. You can apply blood on your hands, your training partner's arm and his training knife and see if you can apply the disarming technique now. In Karv Maga training, sometimes the training would be conducted under a dim light to mimic a dark alley. Or, street sounds like people noise and siren can be played at the schools while practicing the disarming techniques. These are both good ideas to add to your knife training.
2. Right approach and mentality: Additionally, even at this stage your ultimate goal is not to subdue the attacker, but to either find an opportunity to get away or buy time for helps to come. Subduing the attacker with your bare hands by yourself alone would be the last resort, if all other avenues fail. Also, one thing to bear in mind almost all experts agree you would get injured by knife at this stage. I concurred since my research shows 98% of the people in my data were at least injured in the process. When facing a knife attack, it is critical to avoid getting cut or stab at the vital areas such as major arteries or organs. Even if you got injured in the process, you still need to fight on. Although, injury is inevitable, however, as long as you don’t get cut or stab at the vital areas you still have a chance to survive. Yes, from my research, there were people who died from just one cut or stab to the vital area. If you can avoid that type of wounds, then your chance of survival grows exponentially even you are cut or stabbed multiple times. You must to summon all your courage to fight for your life. Like some experts like to say: “From the hunted becomes the hunter.”