「對打練習」/「過手」 Technical Sparring


我們詠春稱對打練習為過手或自由過手。對打練習有多種不同的類型。常態性的對打練習不必要打得鼻青臉腫,或者是全身穿著護具裝備(頭盔、護胸、護齒..等等)互相用全力得打或踢對方才算作有效的訓練。雖然泰拳在擂台上是出了名的凶狠,但其平常的對打練習和比賽時強度可是大相逕庭。事實上近年來國外的格鬥運動訓練許多已經採用類似泰拳對打練習的模式。[1]有人稱之為「技術性對打」(Technical Sparring)或「輕接觸對打」(Light Contact Sparring)。泰拳練習者通常只穿戴著拳套和護脛練習對打。他們也需要常做沒有戴任何護具的對打練習;特別是練習纏抱(Clinching) 的時候。這種類型的對打練習的好處是允許練習者同時專注於攻防技術精益求精,時機點掌控,技術和技術間的轉換流暢度。而且,因為對打時對力道使用上有相當控制如此一來可以減少訓練傷害和降低學員之間傷和氣的機會。以下是世界一流泰拳/自由搏擊選手做對打練習的影片。Orono, Sam-APakorn是筆者的泰拳教練[2]他們的對打練習十分值得作為我們學習的借鏡。


We don’t need to try to beat each other to a pulp or frequently wearing full body protection gears and using full power to punch or kick each other to have an effective sparring session.  Although Muay Thai is notoriously brutal in the ring, its sparring can be something very different.  As a matter of fact, in recent years combat sports have gravitated to Muay Thai style of sparring.  Some call it “Technical Sparring” or “Light Sparring.”  Muay Thai practitioners wear only gloves and shin guards when they spar.  They also do sparring without any protection gears; especially practicing clinching.  The benefits of this type of sparring would allow the practitioner to focus on techniques; both offensive and defensive, timing, smooth flow from techniques to techniques.  And, it would reduce injuries from training.  Followings are few examples from top-level Muay Thai/Kickboxing fighters.  Their control is impeccable.  The transitions from techniques to techniques is so smooth.  And, their ability to set aside ego to allow give-and-take of techniques to work on both offense and defense are things that we can all learn from them on how to spar.


[1]:根據報導現在大多數在美國培育終極格鬥賽 (UFC)選手的綜合格鬥館主要採用「技術性對打」或「輕接觸對打」。筆者自己在新加坡對亞洲ONE冠軍賽職業格鬥選手的觀察,在他們的訓練過程中也都做技術性對打。前UFC冠軍Matt Hughes和前UFC明星選手Jamie Varner將他們縮短的職業格鬥生涯歸因於頻繁的「重接觸」或「出全力對打」(hard sparring)。另一個前UFC冠軍Robbie Lawler甚至表示他不再做對打練習以免受傷。很可能他指的是重接觸對打,因為他和Matt Hughes都是從以頻繁的重接觸對打而聞名Miletich Fighting Systems格鬥館出來的選手另一間名聲響亮的MMA館,American Kickboxing Academy(AKA),近年來由於從重接觸對打所受傷使它的幾個著名UFC格鬥選手不得不取消重要比賽。據統計AKA格鬥館美國各大MMA館中受傷比率最高的。AKA的總教練Javier Mendez表示他已經調整選手的訓練以防止受傷。

[2]: 我在Evolve MMA的教練 My Coaches at Evolve MMA

Note: As reported now most UFC fight camps in the U.S. use light sparring/technical sparring.  Matt Huges, former UFC champion, and Jamie Varner, former UFC star, attributed their shortened fight career to frequent hard sparring.


主要參考資料  Reference
The Cost: MMA's Injury Epidemic and How the UFC Is Seeking to Fix It (《代價:MMA受傷的情況如同得到傳染病以及UFC如何尋求解決之道》), by Jeremy Botter

Former UFC fighter Jamie Varner warns young fighters: Too much sparring can lead to early retirement (《前UFC格鬥選手Jamie Varner警告年輕選手:太多的對打可能導致提前退休》), by Steve Hauser

Pearson on Cormier’s injury: AKA fighters spar too hard, they need a coach to reassess training  (AKA格鬥選手對打練習打太凶,他們需要一個教練來重新評估其訓練), by Anton Tabuena

A look at the injury rates of major MMA fight camps 2009-2016 (回顧各大MMA館的受傷比率), by Michael Hutchinson
http://www.bloodyelbow.com/2016/11/26/13752340/ufc-injury-rates-mma-fight-camp-updated-aka-jacksons-blackzilians-team-alpha-male

Current UFC fighter Donald Cerrone admits that he has stopped doing sparring due to concussion that he suffered from taking too many punches to the head.  (在一次採訪中知名現役UFC選手Donald Cerrone承認自己因為頭部中了太多拳而有了腦震盪症狀現在已經不再做對打練習)


對打練習 - Orono教練和Sam-A教練  Sparring - Coach Orono and Coach Sam-A 



對打練習 Pakorn教練和善猜  Sparring - Coach Pakorn and Saenchai


對打練習(無護具) – Sam-A教練和Pornsanae教練Sparring - Coach Sam-A and Coach Pornsanae



對打練習(無護具) – 播求賽門·馬庫斯(加拿大拳王,Glory自由搏擊中量級冠軍) Sparring - Buakaw Banchamek and Simon Marcus

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